EV Battery Packs provide an excellent alternative to fossil fuels and are environment-friendly too. No wonder, they have become essential in many applications. The widest use of battery packs has been in the Electric Vehicle (EV) industry which is projected to bring in a paradigm shift in the way we travel.
What is a Battery Pack?
A battery pack is composed of battery modules, each of which is composed of battery cells – the fundamental building block of this green technology. To understand a Battery Pack, we need to understand its building block – the cell.
Much of the research on and evolution of the technology that drives battery cells is based on the elements that go into making one such cell.
According to the International Energy Agency, electric car sales grew by 65% in 2018, and are surging ahead to reach 23 million units in 2030.
The cell works by separating the lithium ions and electrons from a lithium-metal oxide through an electrolyte during discharge and charge. The commonly used cathode material in a typical cell is made up of Lithium Cobalt, Lithium Manganese Oxide, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt, Lithium Iron Phosphate among others, while the anode is made up of Graphite or Lithium Titanate.
According to the new report from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the demand for raw materials for electric car batteries is set to rise further. The market for cathode for the most common lithium-ion battery was estimated to reach $58.8 billion in 2024 from $7 billion in 2018. Chile contributes to nearly 58% of Lithium reserves, Democratic Republic of Congo to 50% of Cobalt reserves, China, Brazil and Turkey to 80% of natural Graphite reserves, Australia, Brazil, South Africa and Ukraine to 75% of Manganese reserves. The report has suggested investing in green technologies that depend less on critical battery raw materials.
Until recently, the predominant elements used in EV battery packs were Lithium/Cobalt, but technological advances are finding use for other elements as well such as Lithium/Ferrous Phosphate and Lithium/Titanate to match the growth of the EV market.